Cod, known in Norwegian as torsk, is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world. Most of the fat of the cod is stored in the liver. It has a naturally higher level of DHA than EPA and the cod liver oil, known in Norway as tran, has been used since ancient times for its properties and its vitamin content.
There are several species of cod and Pharma Marine™ use mainly Northeast Arctic Cod (Gadus morhua) as raw material for our CodMarine® products, although saithe (Pollachius virens) and haddock (Melanogramus aeglefinus) are also used. The Northeast Arctic cod stock outside of Norway is the largest cod stock in the world.
Cod is an adaptable and versatile fish as it lives in a broad range of temperatures and salinities. They normally live near the bottom of the sea, but you can also find them closer to the surface. They are able to live at different depths. 150-200 meters is the most normal, but they can also go down to 600 meters. Typical size of cod fished by ocean vessels is around 70-90 cm, 1 meter can be considered the average, but it can reach up to 200 cm long and 60 kg.
Cod has a lifespan of 20 years and reach reproductive maturity at 3-4 years, being possible also at 2, and it is estimated that a female can spawn 1 million eggs per year. Other interesting characteristic of Northeast Atlantic cod is that they are able to do long migrations. They spend a long part of the year in the Barents Sea and come to the coast of Norway to spawn.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)